It is essential to continue investing in qualification to achieve career development. In this context, making a master’s degree and its abstract is one of the best options, since with this academic base, it is possible to become a prominent professional, who has more specific knowledge and delivers better results.
At the end of this step, you will need to write an article or a master’s thesis. In addition, you must write an abstract, that is, an abstract in English that contains the key information and completion of your article. The main point of choosing the English language as an option is that it is the most talked about in the world, being very usual in the means of research. And, of course, you want your article to catch everyone’s attention, do not you?
Let’s help you by showing here in this post 4 tips for you to learn how to make an abstract. Check out!
1. Plan the text of the abstract according to the obligatory points
First of all, it is important to write your abstract after the conclusion of the entire article. This is because the abstract should include essential parts of each section, since it should present an overview of the discussion of your work.
Therefore, make up the abstract with the following parts: problem, objective, approach, results and conclusions. In problem-solving, you need to delimit and explain what the issue is that the article is trying to solve or address, that is, contextualize the reader by answering simple questions such as:
- – What problem is being investigated?
- – Where is the situation?
- – Why is the study relevant?
Next, explain what the objectives of your job are, such as: understanding the aspect of a problem, finding a solution to a particular scenario, or conducting a case study, for example. In addition, you need to justify why the subject of research is meaningful to society.
Already in the approach part, you should mention the search methods, that is, which variables were used and which were discarded. Thus, it is possible to explain the method used, such as: case study, literature review and laboratory experiment. Also, add relevant data, such as the number of cases studied and that of researchers.
At the end of the summary, show the results found succinctly but satisfactorily, including the main data and avoiding very simple terms. In this section, it is important to be honest about what has been achieved, regardless of whether the aspect is negative or positive.
Afterwards, finalize your text with the conclusion, which should explain what are the impacts and implications of the results of your research work.
Finally, be sure to place the keywords so that your text can be easily found in search methods. Keep in mind that a summary should speak for itself, ie the reader needs to understand the whole rationale of his work without having to go deeper and read other parts of the text.
2. Use instrumental English to write the abstract
It is important to point out that the abstract will not be a literal translation of your abstract in Portuguese. After all, the English and Portuguese languages present great differences among themselves, as in the conjugation of verbs, which prevents one text being written exactly like the other.
In addition, it is recommended that instrumental English be used in its abstract. This methodology came to America around the 1970s, being called English for Specific Purposes (ESP). It teaches that language learning requires 4 skills (speaking, listening, writing and reading), and traditional English courses work together.
However, in ESP, the 4 skills are studied separately for a specific purpose. This technique is used mainly by the academic public in the graduate – for example, by who wants to attend or to give classes in masters classes and the doctorate.
Thus, this methodology is interesting for those who need to learn the skill of reading in a short space of time and for specific purposes, such as writing an abstract.
3. Do not use automatic translation tools for abstract
As we have already mentioned, the exact translation from Portuguese to English is impossible. That way, when using machine translation tools, your text will lose its meaning and present significant errors.
The reason for this is that, in addition to the conjunctions and verbs being used differently, there are phrases and words that can have different meanings, depending on the context, which is not perceived by a computer. If your work presents inconsistencies of this type, it may be returned or even prevented from being published.
In addition, theses of monographs and articles in general have many technical terms, which makes the translation more laborious. So it takes time and dedication to look up the terms and translate your resume correctly.
If you are unfamiliar with English, bet on the work of a resume translation professional. But it is important to remember: the translator will take his abstract in Portuguese and create an abstract from it. Thus, your original text needs to be very well written and reviewed by an advisor so that the technical terms and other points in the essay are adequate.
4. Format your abstract in ABNT rules
According to the ABNT (Association of Technical Standards), the abstract should come in a separate page, after the abstract in Portuguese. You should be aware of the following rules for organizing this part of the article:
- – leave the title centralized, in high and bold box;
- – do not write the abstract in the first person;
- – write the text in a single paragraph;
- – set the margins in this way: 3 cm upper and left, 2 cm lower and right;
- – apply Arial font (size 10) or Times New Roman (size 12), in black color;
- – Keep text and keywords justified and with spacing of 1.5 cm between the lines.
For academic papers, such as theses and dissertations, ABNT states that the abstract should extend from 150 to 500 words. Journal articles should contain from 100 to 250 words and short information, from 50 to 100 words.
Still, you need to take care of using technical terms, explaining them when necessary, always taking into account the audience that will read your article. It is also recommended that you avoid acronyms, abbreviations, symbols, contractions, formulas, and diagrams, for example. If the use of any of these elements is essential, explain the meaning as early as the first quotation.